Shlokas & Shruti Positions

Shlokas from the base of Indian 22 shruti system.                                                                                   Basically Indian Masters have described positions of shrutis & swaras on cord or wire of Veena or cord instrument  In India Sa or C has been alloted frequecy 240 and further frequencies were calculated by different masters as per their interpretations of these shlokas but because of different opinions about meanings of shloka & arguments about exactness of the shruti due to differences in hearing abilities there were lot of arguments with people who were artists not being interested in mathematics thingas were neglected Further development of TET scale of hormonium complicated maters as In Indian singers were taught to adjust their own String instrument as the scale of voice raises as one starts singing which is called warming up of sound box like warm up execises in case of athelets & in other games slowly people developed to adjust to hormonium in reeds adjusted by expert indian manufacturers , which was gave 12 tones. Shruti hormonium was formed by Late Prof.Achrekar Mr.Deval & Mr.Clement in 1910 to 1918.  But Those experiments failed because of changes in the scale of human voice with singing for a longer time and scale can not be exactly adjusted with fixed scale hormonium type instruments , unlike Cord instruments like Tambora or Veena or Guitar where the singer sets the cord tension to exactly match his own tone.


1) ध्वन्यावाच्छिन्नवीणायां मध्ये  तारकसः स्थितः

This means undivided cord of any wire or material the Sa or Shadja swara is situated in the centre of the wire is the Sa or Shadja (“c”) of upper scale. Human voice if trained can sing 2 circles (octave) lower 1/2 , middle & upper 1/2. very few singers can sing three circles(octaves).

.                      तार सा        (मध्यम) सा                               खर्ज सा

        1/8      1/4                   1/2                                        1/1                                                                        |___|___|______|____________|_________________________|

      अतितार सा

Shloka No 1 –  ध्वन्यावाच्छिन्नवीणायां म्ध्ये तारकासः स्थितः
Dhvani Avichhinna Veenayam madhye Tarak Sa Sthitah
This shloka means Centre of a wire on a Veena is the position of  Upper  Sa (C) Here C or C# is not given whatever might be length of wire depending on that upper Scale tone is present on the center point. We take the flat scale staring on Sa(C) at present.                                             Meaning on Ratio distance of 2/1 & length wise on 1/2  distance is position of Upper scale  Further on 1/4 & 1/8 distance is positions of still upper two scales Sa (C)  are present ,         When 1/1 is the ratio & on whole wire length is position of lowest Sa (C) of that scale.

No. 2)  उभयोर्षड्जयो:मध्ये मध्यम स्वरंमआचरेत

Shloka means center positioned between these two C is the position of  Ma or F Tone this means that Ma or F is situated at 4/3 ratio & 3/4 wire length.

उभयोर्षड्जयोमर्ध्ये  मध्यम  स्वरंमआचरेत

This means situated in the centre of two सा swaras is the shruti portion of मध्यम (f) swara is situated on the centre of each two Sa(C) Tones so on 3/4 , 3/8 , 3/16 are positions of upper scale Madhyama Swaras or F flat tones   Bellow three scales are shown Showing Three Madhyama or Three F tones on three rising scales –  3/4 ( 4/3 Ratio) , 3/8 (8/3 ratio ) & 3/16 (16/3 ratio) 

        तार (मध्यम)     मध्य(मध्यम)               खर्ज मध्यम      खर्ज सा                      

0          3/16    1/4      3/8      1/2                 3/4                   1/1     


           सा (तार)                     सा(मध्यम)

Shloka No.3)  त्रिभागात्मकवीणायां पंचम: स्यात्तदग्रीम
Shloka means If the wire is diveided into 3 equal parts then 2/3 position at ratio position of 3/2 is position of Pa or G

त्रिभागात्मकवीणायां पंचम: स्यात्तदग्रीम

This means if the wire is divided into 3 parts thenपंचमor “G” tone is situated on the upper 2/3rd ratio is shruti of पंचम & 1/3 position would be G/पंचम(मध्य)  & 1/9 would be still upper scale      G/पंचम(तार)  with C सा(मध्यम) on 1/2 ratio position and 1/1 which is full length of wire cord being the C of lower scale/ खर्ज सा. Here two G tone are shows first on 2/3 (3/2 ratio) & 1/3 (3/1 Ratio –

0                            1/3             1/2         2/3                        1/1


|                       G/पंचम(मध्य)  सा(मध्यम)  G/पंचम (खर्ज)    खर्ज सा

Shloka No.4)  षड्जापंचमयोर्मध्ये गांधारस्य श्रुति: भवेत                                                                               Shloka No.9)  मेरुधैवतोर्मध्ये तीव्र गांधारम आचरेत

0                            1/3             1/2         2/3         5/6               1/1


|                 G/पंचम(मध्य)  सा(मध्यम)  G/पंचम Eflat/को.ग. खर्ज सा

0                  1/5      1/3     2/5   2.5/5   3/5          4/5    9/10  5/5

|___________↓______|_____↓_____|____↓_________↓__ ___↓_____|

                                        octave C Aflat/ध2श्रुति E#/ ती.ग. Dflat खर्ज सा

Shloka means center position between these two Sa (C) & Pa (G) is the position of Ga or E. Now here by ratio distance center of 1/1 & 3/2 is same as center of 4/4, 5/4 & 6/4 as ratio distances are maintained so it is 5/4 & 4/5 of wire length.So if 240 is the frequency of C then E is on 300 Also 3/5 , 4/5 & 5/5 we get centre between Dha on 3/5 & sa on 5/5 But here people divide the 1/3 length distance into two halves & get 4/6, 5/6 &6/6 (with 5/6) position wire length as center point wnich gives ratio distance of 6/5 & so 240 X 6/5 = 288 as position of Ga or E which comes Ko. Ga or D# in practice. This way we get two different shruti positions of Gandhar or E as per original Indian thought.

Shloka No.5 सपयोः पूर्वभागे च स्थापनियो अथ रीस्वर:
Shloka No.8 भागत्रायान्विते मेरो रिषभ संज्ञितात
भागद्वयोत्तरम मेरो: कुर्यात कोमल रिस्वरम

No. 5) Shloka means Re swara is positioned at the previous part (Poorva Bhaga) between Sa (C) & Pa (G).
1) This means that first we divide the distance between twoparts previous (Poorva) & Later (Uttara) part & center of previous (Poorva) part is then position of Re or D If we see by ratio distance 1/1 & 3/2 or 8/8 & 12/8 are same & 8/89/810/8 – 11/8 – 12/8 these would be the divisions with center formed by 10/8 which is center point & position of E (Ga) & Now 9/8 is the center of “Previous” or “Poorvabhaga” so 9/8 is the position or ratio of Re or D which is 240 X 9/8 = 270 and 8/9 would be the wire length. Here method used by musicians was that as 36 inches is the wire length of Sa (C) which is of 240 frequency and Pa (G) is situated on 2/3 length at 24 inches so the 12 inch distance between these two was divided into 3 parts interpreting the word “Previous part” or “Poorva Bhaga” as “previous 1/3” & so placing Re on 4 inches from 36 which is 32 inches distanc getting same ratio 36/32 = 9/8 which is same as above. Point not considered was that ancient Sanskrit Shlokas do not give length of wire but they describe ratio positions.

0                            1/3             1/2         2/3(6/9)7/9    8/9       1


G/पंचम(मध्य)    G/पंचम (खर्ज)  सा(मध्यम)                  D# शु.रे खर्ज सा

                                                                                                                                                                          2) So If we take Position of Madhyam or F which is 4/3 as per ratio & 3/4 on wire or cord Then between 1/1 or 16/1615/16 – 14/16 – 13/16 – 12/16 or (3/4) we have 15/16 position which is same previous to central 14/16 giving 15/16 or 16/15 as one more shruti position of Re or Rishabha swara or C Sharp position this becomes first shruti called Komal Re.


          तार (मध्यम)   मध्य(मध्यम)            खर्ज मध्यम                खर्ज सा                      

0          3/16    1/4       3/8     1/2                3/4           15/16 1/1     


                         सा (तार)         सा(मध्यम)                     C# को.रे.1श्रुति

                                                                                                                                                                          3) Further if we see position of Gandhar or E Sharp on 5/4 which is on 4/5 on wire or cord Then 5/5 that is 20/20 – 18/2016/20 – 14/20 – 12/20 that is (3/5) on previous to central
4/5 or 16/20 Teevra Gandhar is situated 18/20 or 9/10 having 10/9 ratio proportion is the 2 nd shruti of Re or Rishabha or D of music called western music Here we get all three shrutis or ratio proportions of Re or Rishabh or D swara.

       तार (मध्यम)   मध्य(मध्यम)                       E# ती.ग             खर्ज सा                      

0          3/16    2.5/10   3/8     5/10                  8/10    9/10  10/10     


                         सा (तार)         सा(मध्यम)                    Dflat को.रे.2 श्रुति

Here for Convenience Lower scale Sa(C) is shown on 2/1                                                                  so that Midle scale Sa (C) becomes 1/1 & Upper scale Sa (C) 0n 1/2

                                                                      1/2                  2/3        3/4   4/5    8/9 9/10   15/16 1/1→ 2/1

                                                                                                            मध्र्यम  ती.ग.   रे. शु रे.को.  रे.को.


                                                                      सा(तार)      G/पंचम (मध्र्य)                             सा(मध्यम)खर्ज सा

Shloka No.6 सापयोर्मध्यदेशे तु धैवतं स्वरम आचरेत अथवा पंचामोत्तरषड्जाख्यमध्ये धैवत स्वरम आचरेत

Shloka No 11  भागत्रायान्विते र्मध्ये  पंचामोत्तरषड्जयो  कोमल  धैवत स्थापयो  पूर्वभागे

Shloka No.9 मेरुधैवतोर्मध्ये तीव्र गांधारम आचरेत

       तार (मध्यम)   मध्य(मध्यम)       G# को.ध  खर्ज मध्यम           खर्ज सा                      

0          3/16    1/4       3/8     1/2  ←5/8 →  3/4           15/16 1/1     


                         सा (तार)       सा(मध्यम)                     C# को.रे.1श्रुति

Here we can see G# / C# ratio is maintained 2/3 on chord & 3/2 on frequency as frequency ratio is 1/chord ratio  ! 

      तार (मध्यम)         ध(मध्यम)             Aflat    E# orती.ग             खर्ज सा                                                                                                                     ध 2श्रुति                    

0          3/16    2.5/10   3/8     5/10       6/10    8/10    9/10  10/10     


                         सा (तार)         सा(मध्यम)                     Dflat को.रे.2 श्रुति                                                    

Here we can see A flat/D flat  ratio is maintained 2/3 on chord & 3/2 on frequency as frequency ratio is 1/chord ratio  ! 

No. 6) Shloka means center positioned between Sa(C) & Pa (G) is the position of Dha (A).  Now here great masters take it for granted that Musician understand that ratio between Sa(C) & Pa (G) called as C – G or Sa – Pa is same between “Ma ( F ) & Upper Sa (C)”  1/1 & 3/2  is same as  4/3 & 2/1  ( 4/3 X 3/2 = 2/1 ). This means that to get Dha (A) we must get center point of 4/3 & 2/1 which is same. As center point between 4/3 & 6/3 i.e 4/3 – 5/3 – 6/3  So it is 5/3 which is 5/3 &  If Sa or C is put on frequency 240 then 5/3 X 240 = 400 is frequency of Dh or  Dhaivat or A . Here we will understand that In shloka No. 9 which means at centre from meru that to position of Dhaivat which is A tone or swara at the centre point is Teevra Ga or E Sharp Teevra Gandhar is on 4/5 so 4/5 is situated on wire at point between 3/5 & 5/5 the whole length of wire or cord (3/5 – 4/5 – 5/5) the position of 2 nd shruti of dhaivat Dha or A

Here Indian musicians could not come to any conclusion & so used Sa – Pa or C – G which states that  C – G ratio is maintained between D– A , E– B, & F– C on the 36 inches wire where place of Re is 32 inches so 2/3 of 32 is 21 1/3 inches is 21 1/3 upon 36 inches 64/3 of 36 so on 16/27 position was proved & accepted position of Dha or A & frequency of Re or D is 270 so  270 X 3/2 = 405 was accepted frequency of Dha shuddha or A Sharp. Point of C – G ratio is valid so also rule of ratio distances on wire or cord is valid & This is the reason why shloka uses word tu (सापयोर्मध्यदेशे तु ) which means also in between Sa & Pa or C – G distance between Ma & Upper Sa or F & C of upper scale is also CG ratio & Pa – Re of upper scale  which is G & D of upper scale is also in C – G ratio  But from पंचामोत्तरषड्जाख्यमध्ये  So meaning from Pancham onwards CG ratio So like Re we get three shruti positions 16/15 , 10/9 & 9/8 from Pancham onwards giving us three Shrutis Of Dha using C-G (3/2) ratio which are 8/5 , 5/3 & 27/16 Last or third shruti of A tone or Dha !                                                                                                                                                 16/15 of Pa or G (which is 3/2) So 1 st shruti of Dha or A being 8/5 ,                                                     10/9  of Pa or G (which is 3/2) So 2 nd shruti of Dha or A being 5/3,                                                       9/8   of Pa or G (which is 3/2) So 3 rd or last shruti of Dha or A being 27/16

7) तंत्राशद्वयसंत्यागात निशादस्य श्रुति भवेत

12) तथैव धसयोर्मध्ये  भागत्रयसमन्विते

पूर्वभागद्वयातूध्वर्मं निषादमॄ तीव्रमाचरेत ।। विकृतस्वराः ।।

          तार (मध्यम)   मध्य(मध्यम)  B#/ती.नि    खर्ज मध्यम              खर्ज सा                      

0          3/16    1/4       3/8     1/2  15/8             3/4           15/16 1/1     

|_______|______|______|_____|↔_ ⇓__________|__________↓___|

                         सा (तार)         सा(मध्यम)                     C# को.रे.1श्रुति

Here one can see how beautiful balance was achieved called “Madhayam Gram”                    1/1 is centre of 15/8 & 16/15… where as                                                                                                 1/1 is also center of 10/9 & 9/5                                                                                                                  1/1 is center of 6/5 E flat & 5/3 A flat                                                                                                          1/1 is center of 5/4 E# or Ga teevra & 8/5 G#                                                                                           1/1 is center of 4/3 F or Ma & 3/2 G or Pa                                                                                                   1/1 is centre of 45/32 F# or Teevra Ma  & 64/45 G or Pa 1st shruti  !                                                    like rule o G/C ratio or Pa/Sa ratio of 3/2 & F/C or Ma/Sa Ratio of 4/3                                                if we calculate Making G or Pa as F or Ma or G or Pa as Sa then we get                                            if 3/2 G or Pa is made Ma then Sa will come on Re 9/8 maintaining G/D ration 4/3  or                    if 3/2 G or Pa is made C or Sa then Sa will come on 2/1 which is upper scale or octave C or Sa  The ratio betwen D# or Re of Shadja gram 9/8 & D # of Madhyam gram 10/9 is  81/80 which is called as “Praman shruti” or Pythagorus coma                                                                                         Now if we make This D# on 9/8 as C or Sa then                                                                                        15/16 bellow 9/8 on 135/128 would be last shruti of B# or Teevra Ni  &                                        on 16/15 above 9/8  that is on 6/5 would be the 1st shruti of new D flat or new Komal re Re !     Here we get 135/128 which is the 4th shruti of C or Sa & 0n 80/81 0r pythagorian comma distance that is 25/24 we get the 3rd shruti of C or Sa  So Now picture becomes complete           1/1 is centre of 81/80 the 1st shruti above & 160/81 one shruti bellow                                                1/1 is centre of 25/24 the 2 nd shruti above & 48/25 two shruti bellow                                             1/1 is center of 135/128 the 3rd shruti above & 256/135 three shruti bellow                                      1/1 being its own shruti It is FOUR Shruti swar Called Shadja or one which gives birth to            6 shruti & 6 swaras !!!   Simmilarly F & G or Ma & Pa are 4 shruti swaras with                                  4/3 is centre of 27/20 the 1st shruti above & 320/243 one shruti bellow                                            4/3 is centre of 25/18 the 2 nd shruti above & 32/25 two shruti bellow                                             4/3 is center of 45/32 the 3rd shruti above & 512/405 three shruti bellow                                     4/3 being its own shruti It is FOUR Shruti swar Called Madhyam or F which can be used as Sa or C like one which gives birth to  6 shruti & 6 swaras !!!    Now comming to G or Pa                       3/2 is centre of 243/160 the 1st shruti above & 40/27 one shruti bellow                                             3/2 is centre of 25/16 the 2 nd shruti above & 36/25 two shruti bellow                                             3/2 is center of 405/256 the 3rd shruti above & 64/45 three shruti bellow                                      3/2 being its own shruti It is FOUR Shruti swar Called Pancham or G which can be used as Sa or C like one which gives birth to 6 shruti & 6 swaras !!!                                                                                                                             

       तार (मध्यम)   मध्य(मध्यम)       G# को.ध  खर्ज मध्यम           खर्ज सा                      

0          3/16    4/1       8/3    2/1↔  9/5    8/5       4/3         10/9 ↔1/1     

|_______|______|______|_____|_⇓___↓______|__________↓  ←_|

                         सा (तार)       सा(मध्यम)                     C# को.रे.1श्रुति

No. 7) Shloka means from that place leaving two places from Sa or C (that place – Sapayoho meaning from  Shadja – Pancham as mentioned in each of previous shlokas) leaving two points (Ansha – Dwaya Santyagat ) is the position of Ni or B.  Now if we see 3/2 is position of  Pa or G & 2/1 is position of  Sa (C)  So to leave two places or points if we look at ratio  3/2 & 2/1 as 12/8 & 16/8 then we have  12/8, 13/8, 14/8, 15/8, 16/8.  So leaving two places after 12/8 is 15/8 which comes to 15/8 X 240 = 450 the frequency of  Ni or B Similarly between Dha 8/5(24/15) & Sa 2/1(30/15)  leaving 2 points from 30/15 Sa which is 27/15 is 1 st shruti of Ni or B flat 5/5 – 6/5 – 7/5 – 24/15 – 26/15 – 27/15(9/5) – 28/15 – 29/15 – 30/15  (10/5) Further when we see the same on wire or cord between Dha of 5/3 & Upper Scale Sa . As given in shloka 12 when we tripartition upper one 8/15 is the shruti of Teevra Ni or B 30/30 – 1/3 – 20/30 – 19/30 – 18/30(3/5) – 17/30 – 16/30(8/15) – 15/30

10) भागत्रयविशिष्टे अस्मिन तीव्रगांधारषड्जयोः , पूर्वभागोत्तरम मध्ये मं तीव्रमाचरेत

Now we come to Shruti place of Teevra Ma or F Sharp

Here this shloka means the three particular parts between Teevra Ga or Sharp E & Sa or C the three particular parts Here most important part to remember is Panchanm or Pa or G tone or swara is called as “Other Shadja” or “PratiShadja”. So here Bahgatraya Vishishta means usualy F & G or Ma & Pa which is 9/8 ratio it is meant distance between Sharp E is on ratio 5/4  & Madhyam on 4/3 & Pa ( other Shadja ) is on 3/2  so between 5/4 & 3/2 or from 5/4 on 16/15 ratio distance is 4/3 Now bhaga traya vishishta means 9/8 ratio from 5/4 which is 45/32 which is also situated on 15/16 ratio from third part G or Pa on 3/2  of this these specific three parts like “Sa or C is followed by C# on 16/15 & D on 9/8 with 6/5 E flat situated in the centre of  C & G in the same way from E # onwards as E or Ga being two shruti swaras situated on 6/5 & 5/4 & there is no question of any shruti less than than these so same cycle seen repeating !

5/4 ( 40/32 )  – 4/3 –  48/32 (3/2) in this above 4/3 is situated on a ratio of 16/15 From 5/4 which is teevra Gandhar or E Sharp which is previous part ratio further From 5/4 on a distance of 9/8 is swara 45/32 which is last shruti distance between Sa or C 1 st shruti  1/1 & Re or D Last Shruti which is 9/8 same way Ma or F 1 st shruti 4/3 &  Pa or G Last shruti which is on 9/8 ratio on 3/2 Pa or G is called as achala swar  with ratio Sa – Pa or C- G ratio of 3/2 always & 0n ration 8/9 from 3/2 the achala (Immovable ) shruti of G or Pa is 3/2 into 8/9 which is 4/3 Here we get 1st shruti of Madhyam !  So From 5/4 at ratio of 16/15 or 4/3 which is end of poorva bhag or previous third to 15/16 of 3/2 which is 45/32  so Between  4/3 to 45/32 you are free to put Teevra Ma or F Sharp any where but if you go to 16/15 ratio from 4/3 which is 64/45 you come to 1st shruti of Pa or G ! here comes the meaning of  VIVADI term which is defined

विवादिनस्तु ते येषां स्याद्विंशतिं स्वरामन्तरं ।                                                         तद्यथा ऋषभ – गान्धारौ , धैवत -निषादौ ।।

These Closely placd tones which have 22 shruti , or less than 1 shruti distance !                                                                                                         Particularly D Sharp & E flat ( Shuddha Dha & 1st shruti Ga )  , As also in case of  A Sharp & B flat ( Shuddha A and  1st shruti B )  There is always Controversy or Vivad about labelling these tones ! As singers often make mistake in putting these close distance swaras  !!

Best thing here is Last Shruti of F # is seen on 45/32 & 1st shruti of G is seen on 64/45                   Further if we take Sharper F tone by using ratio of 81/80 over 45/32 then we get 729/512             & one shruti lower than 64/45 by reducing 80/81 we get 1024/729  Here Ratio distance between 64/45 & 45/32  is 2048/2025  But if we seen ratio difference between 1 shruti above 45/32 &       1 shruti bellow 64/45

Here we would note that Shadja, Madhyam & Pancham these four shruti swaras or tones           have peculiar positioning in relation to their previous & next tones or swaras with                     common ratio16/15 amidst them as follows                                                                                              B Sharp or Teevra Nishad is on 15/8 , Shadja on 1/1 & on 16/15 is Komal Rishabh D flat                 E Sharp or Teevra Gandhar is on 5/4 , Madhyam on 4/3 & on 64/45 is 1st shruti Pancham G flat   F Sharp or Teevra Madhyam is on 45/32 , Pancham on 3/2 & on 8/5 is Komal Dhaivat

Further Komal Re or D last shruti on 9/8 is on ratio of 135/128 from 16/15 which is 1st shruti of Re or D with 2 nd shruti of Re or D being on 10/9 as seen above & which is at ratio distance of 80/81 from Last shruti 9/8 Which is the same ratio distance between 2 nd shruti  Dha or A on 5/3 & Last Shruti 27/16 of Dha or A This ratio also is 81/80 or 80/81 from each other which is famous Pythagorian Coma from western musical tones.


This indicates 135/128 is the last or 4 th shruti of Sa or C # & 80/81 from this Is the ratio 25/24 which is 3 rd shruti of & we get 2 nd shruti of sa on 81/80 with Sa or C positioned on 1/1

Shadja means one which gives birth to six tones as well as shrutis 

Here we get lower three Shrutis of Shadja or C on 2/1 which is upper scale , these being                256/135 , 48/25, & 160/81 which on reverse ratios 128/135 , 24/25 , & 80/81 from 2/1 C Shadja

Best part is Teevra Ga or E-sharp situated on 5/4 is on 25/24 from Ga komal or E flat  situated on 6/5. Here we get clear picture that Tevra Ga (E Sharp) & Ma Shuddha (F) is 16/15Ratio distance 4/3 of Ma (F) & 5/4 of Teevra Ga (E Sharp) is the distance Between 1 st shruti of any swara from its previous swara This is Antashruti. Distance where swara changes. Others are antar-shrutis of same swara !

                              शास्त्रीय संगीतास शास्त्रीय कां म्हणतात ?

शास्त्रीय संगीत या नांवाप्रमाणे या संगीतामागे शास्त्राधार आहे ते शिष्ट-विशिष्ट परमार्थ-स्वार्थ मार्गदर्शी असते. याउलट शास्त्रास नाकारून, अशास्त्रीय संगीत हे शस्त्रांच्या आधारे लोकांच्या माथी मारून फक्त स्वार्थ साधणारे असते. हे अज्ञानातून घडते. कारण शस्त्रानापण शास्त्रशिक्षण लागते व पुन्हा शास्त्र कळू लागले की शास्त्रीय संगीत वा संगीतामागचे शास्त्र कळते व पुनरुत्थान वेळ येते.

शास्त्रीय संगीत हे नांव असले तरी या शास्त्राप्रमाणेही मार्ग संगीत व देशी संगीत असे वर्गीकरण पुरातन काळी होते. यात मार्ग संगीत हे मार्ग दर्शक ( हे न शिकता सतत ऐकूनही श्रवणाने अज्ञ माणसास सन्मार्गाला लावते वा ज्ञानी माणसाला वा अज्ञ माणसास सन्मार्गावरून विचलित करण्याची शक्ती देणारे. ) हे संगीत “दिवस – रात्र कालदर्शी’’ व “बद्ध – मुक्त करणारे’’ , “युद्ध – शांति’’ असे सतत ‘मार्ग’ दायक संगीत होते. हे गावो गावाच्या वेशीवर सनयी (समया बरहुकूम वाजविली जाणारी ‘सं अय’ तो समय तर ‘सं अयी’ ती सनयी व समयी ! ) व चौघडा ( चार घडा दाखवणारा) हे वाजवले जात. हे समयाप्रमाणे असल्याने पांथस्थाला दिशा वा मार्ग दाखविणारे असे हे मार्ग संगीत.

तसेच हे मनाला पण मार्ग दाखविणारे (कल्याण का भैरवी) असे होते.                                                                       तर देशी संगीत हे देशोदेशी माणसांच्या आवड, वृत्ति दर्शवणारे असे ती वृत्ति जोपासणारे वेशीवर न वाजवता विशिष्ट देशी वापरावयाचे म्हणजे 1) सकाळी उठवावयास वेगळे  तर 2) भोजनस्थानी वेगळे  तर 3) मैफिलीत नृत्याबरोबर वेगळे तर 4) झोपाळ्यात बाळांना झोपवावयास वा  5) देवळात यज्ञ पूजा या साठी वेगळे, 6) युद्धभूमिवर वेगळे तर                    7) विवाहसमयी वेगळे,     8) मृत्यूसमयी वेगळे तर      9) गरोदर स्त्रियांसाठी व जन्मवेळी वेगळे

असे नवरसोत्पत्ति कल्पना दाखविणारे, देशांप्रमाणे प्रकृति व मानसिक दशांप्रमाणे दिशा बदलणारे ते देशी संगीत असे वर्गीकरण होते.

मूळ सुरांच्या उत्पत्तिपासून आपल्याकडे नियम आहेत. इथे हे लक्षात घ्यावयास हवे की “आपल्याकडे’’ याचा अर्थ “प्राचीन काळापासून’’. पाश्चिमात्य, पौर्वात्य, चिनी,अरबी वगैरे भेद हे खोटे आहेत सर्वव्यापी वैदिक धर्माचाच संगीत हा एक अविभाज्य भाग होता. हे नवे विभाग हे “देशी’’ संगीत आहे “मार्ग’’ संगीताचे नियम बदलत नाहीत व सद्धयाच्या विभक्त अवस्थेत ते विखुरलेले वेगळे वाटतात.

मूळ पाश्चिमात्य संगीतातील समजले जाणारे 6/5, 9/8 , 10/9 ,5/3 3/2, 4/3 , 2/1, या रेशेंचे मूळ सुद्धा वेदच आहेत. नवनवीन स्थापिल्या गेलेल्या धर्मांनी नाकारले तरी तो “नव्या धर्माचा धर्मसंस्थापक’’ धर्मसंस्थापनेआधी “त्याच्या शिकण्याच्या काळात’’ तो कोणाकडे शिकला ? त्याच्या त्यावेळी पाळल्या जात असलेल्या धर्माबद्दलच्या प्रश्नांचे समाधानकारक उत्तर कोणी देत नाहीत. त्याच्या मातापित्यांचा काय धर्म होता व वेगळ्या नवीन धर्माच्या रक्षणास व प्रसारास शस्त्र वापर कसा होत असे हे समाधानकारकपणे कोणी कबूल करत नाही.                                                                                                                                     विद्याधर्म म्हणजेच वैदिक धर्म हे सर्वांचे मूळ आहे. यामधे वेदांमध्ये जे श्लोक आहेत त्यांचा संयुक्तिक अर्थ लावला न जाता माणूस विस्मृतीकारणाने भरकटतो. उदा. सं.पारिजात मधील श्लोक यांचा अर्थ न कळण्याने पाश्चात्य संगीतातील सूर परके ठरविले जातात.

मूळ या श्लोकांचा गणिती अर्थ असलाच पाहिजे. व्यासोत्छिष्टम् जगत् सर्वम्  या उक्तिचा अर्थ जसा व्यासानी उत्छिष्ट असे हे जग आहे  असा वरवर भासला तरी गणिती व्यासाच्या भोवती सर्व जग फिरत असते व या व्यासापासून सर्व जग बाहेर फेकले जात असते. पृथ्वी स्वतच्या व्यासाभोवती फिरते तसेच सर्व जग ही फिरते. किंबहुना जग या शब्दातच “ज – जन्म’’ व “ग – गति’’ अध्याह्रृत आहेत. जे जन्माला गतितून येते व जन्मानंतर गति  देते ते जग. असा संस्कृतचा महिमा आहे इथे “अर्थो – वाक् -अनुधावती’’  अशी ही भाषा आहे फक्त समजणारा पाहिजे.  या विचारांतून खाली श्लोकांचा अर्थ तपासून काढला आहे.पाश्चात्य वगैरे काही  वेगळे, त्यांचे – आमचे असे, हे विश्वचि माझे घर म्हणणाऱया वैदिक संस्कृतीत असूच शकत नाही सर्व आपलेच आहे. फक्त प्राकृत रूप वेगळे भासते, हे सर्व कळणे ज्ञान होय. ते अविनाशी असते.                                               तेच ज्ञ(जाणण्यायोग्य) व अन(अनश्य) असे  – ज्ञ + अन – ते म्हणजे ज्ञान.


षड्जपंचमभावेन षड्जे ज्ञेयाः स्वराः बुधैः ।  गनिभावेन गांधारे मसभावेन मध्यमे ।।                                                यात रिषभ धैवत यांचा उल्लेख नाही कारण षड्जे, गांधारे, मध्यमे ’’ यांचा रोख ग्रामांकडे आहे.

  सामगानात पाच सूरांचा वापर होत असे रेध हे षड्जपंचम भावात ठेवले की परिणाम तसा होतो

सामगायनाः प्रथम वेण्णो मध्यम स्वर   यो द्वितीय गांधार तृतीय ऋषभ स्मृत ।।                                      चतुर्थः षड्ज इति आहुः पंचमो धैवतो भवेत्  ।  षड्जे निषाद विज्ञेय सफ्तम पंचम स्मृत ।।

C         C#      D     D#     E         F      F#         G      G#         A           A#                   B                C

सा       को.रे     शु.रे  को.ग.    ती.ग    शु.म   ती.म      प(1)      प    को.ध   शु.ध    को#.नि           ती.नि              सां

1/1   16/15  10/9  6/5   5/4    4/3  45/32      64/45  3/2   8/5     5/3      9/5              15/8              2/1


The Symetry of the positions of swaras is so perfect

  • C # & B are 16/15 from C & 15/16 from C(2/1)                                                                                          C  ————↓———————————————————↓————   2/1C                                              →→→→16/15                                                (15/16)15/8 ←←←←
  • D & A # are 10/9from C &  9/10 from C(2/1)                                                                                             C  ————————↓————————————↓———————   2/1C                                             →→→→ →→→10/9                              (9/10)9/5 ←←←←←←←
  • D# & A are- D# 6/5 from C & E 5/6 from C(2/1)                                                                                        C  ————————↓————————————↓———————   2/1C                                             →→→→ →→→ 6/5                                 (5/6)5/3 ←←←←←←←
  • E & G# are 5/4 from C & 4/5 from C(2/1)                                                                                                   C  ————————↓————————————↓———————   2/1C                                             →→→→ →→→ 5/4                                 (4/5)8/5 ←←←←←←←
  • F & G are 4/3 from C & 3/4 from C(2/1)                                                                                                     C  ——————————↓————————↓—————————   2/1C                                             →→→→→→→→→ 4/3                     3/4(3/2)←←←←←←←←←
  • F# & G flat(1st shruti) are 45/32 from C & 32/34 from C(2/1)                                                               C  —————————————↓—↓—————————————   2/1C                                             →→→→→→→→→→    45/32    64/32(32/45)←←←←←←←←←
  • D# of Shadja Gram is 9/8 from C1/1 which is 81/80 from D# 2nd shruti on 10/9                         &  A# of Shadja gram on 27/16 is 81/80 from A# 2nd shruti  on 5/3                                                   C  ————↓——↓———————↓—↓——————↓——↓—————   2/1C                                                  10/9 →9/8 (81/80)                                       5/3 →27/16 (81/80)

In case of formation of Madhyam & Gandhar Gram 1 shruti of Pancham is supposed to be reduced here the shloka of Samagayan come into play where ir is mentioned Panchamo Dhaivato Bhavet meaning Dhaivat is the fifth tone which is adjusted                                                  1 shruti which is 81/80 down from shdja gram positions.                                                                    As Pancham or G Tone  is described as “Achala” It can not be shifted                                             but there was confusion created as it was described Pnacham to be shifted by 1 shruti   (forgetting the Panchamo Dhaivato Bhavet verse)

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